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卡那卡溪(Kanaka Creek)地区公园绵延12公里长,顺着卡那卡溪从山地延续到菲沙河边。公园有几个不同的入口,最方便的游玩方法是把山地部分与河口部分分开来,这样可以开车过去而不用考虑爬山涉水回到原点。其实还有更实际的原因,河口部分水流缓慢形成河套与沼泽,天气暖和一些则蚊虫滋生密布令人无法招架,更适合天凉以后再去。

卡那卡溪(Kanaka Creek)公园瀑布区的森林峡谷和瀑布风景优美,具体参考:探秘大温地区公园系列:Kanaka Creek瀑布区

Cliff Falls at Kanaka Creek with pot holes
Cliff Falls at Kanaka Creek with potholes

夏天去卡那卡溪河畔公园时被蚊虫逼退了,有些悻悻然,这次索性待下雪之后去欣赏雪景。

首先是河畔公园示意图,在地图上寻找地址时使用Kanaka Creek Regional Park Riverfront 或者River Road 比较好:

Kanaka Creek Regional Park Riverfront Map
Kanaka Creek Regional Park Riverfront Map

河畔公园位于枫树岭(Maple Ridge)市。进停车场前需要跨过铁路,一百多年来铁路在这一带是血液一般的存在,尤其是伐木和木材加工繁盛时期:

Red CN Train roaring by Kanaka Creek Riverfront Park
CN Train roaring by Kanaka Creek Riverfront

出山溪流一路冲刷到达这里,汇入菲沙河(Fraser River)之前打了几个湾形成河套,英文称为Oxbow,水流放缓,冲积出河中沙洲,是野鸟和其他动物栖息地:

Kanaka Creek's oxbow in winter
Kanaka Creek Oxbow winter scenery

观鸟塔也是观景塔:

Bird tower by the oxbow of Kanaka Creek
Bird tower by the Kanaka Creek

登上去S形弯道看得更清楚:

The S-shape of the Kanaka Creek
Kanaka Creek becomes S-Shape at the estuary

河的尽头很窄,有座桥跨越,雪中静谧如画:

Pedestrian Bridge at the end of the Kanaka Creek at the confluence of Fraser River
A Pedestrian bridge over Kanaka Creek

这次没有蚊虫滋扰,冬雪开始融化,空气滋润新鲜,令人放慢脚步享受。河边徒步道其实是堤坝的一部分,分为东西两侧,西边是林道并连向卡那卡溪的沼泽河段,东边是菲沙河畔工业区的外围,比较少植被覆盖。再次来到西侧的林道入口,有熊出没的牌子不见了:

Trailhead at the Riverfront trail
Trailhead at the Riverfront trail

夏天被密密的植被遮挡着的菲沙河现在看得见了,这棵大树都经历了什么呢,同根而生的另一棵已经被锯掉,而部分枝桠也发白枯干,大自然中发生的故事往往比我们想象的更残酷:

A dead branch part of a moss-covered big tree by the river front
A moss-covered big tree with dead branch

地上残留的树桩慢慢化为泥土,让其他植物和苔藓有了生长的土壤:

Fallen tree trunks decay to become nurse log
Nurse log on the trail
Fallen tree becomes nurse log
Nursing log on the trail

冬天的白浆果(Snowberries)一簇簇的和白雪相辉映,据说有毒,却是鸟儿们过冬的重要食物:

Snowberries on the trail
Snowberries
Snowberries on the trail
Snowberries

即使是冬天,大自然从未缺乏色彩。也许BC省南部气候比较温暖潮湿,许多植物并不落叶,甚至在冬天生长得很茂盛:

Colourful leaves remained in winter
Colourful leaves with snow
Ferns grow well in winter by the river front
Ferns with snow at Kanaka Creek Riverfront

毛茸茸的苔藓,看上去娇嫩无比,却顽强地在树枝上开疆拓土:

New cluster of moss grow out of a young trig
Moss growing out of a young trig
A large patch of moss colony on a tree
Moss Colony on a tree trunk

小径通向远处,两旁大树小树和灌木以及覆盖地面的各种低矮植被,在冬天不再有遮挡,终于有足够的阳光给它们提供能量,大自然自有其神奇的规律:

Varieties of vegetations from big trees to underbrush to forest floor form a unique ecosystem along the trail
Forest along the Riverfront trail

大树的树干上往往有自己的秘密花园。尤其是三角叶杨(Cottonwood),长出细小的分叉,留存了雨水和养料,吸引其他植物和动物在这里安家:

young trigs and moss-covered tree trunk
Tree trunk with young trigs
small trigs growing out of a tree trunk forming many mini-ecosytem
small trigs growing on a tree trunk

如果注意观察,林道旁总有特别的东西。比如这丛自然弯曲成拱形的灌木,也许是积雪临时造成(青苔生长的部位并不是背阴的地方所以不像是长期形成),也许纯粹是最大限度争取阳光的生存需要,无法得知究竟是什么原因让它们集体长成这样,但漂亮的拱形给动物们提供了庇护所,即使是短暂时光:

Trees and bushes form a big arch dome
Arch dome formed by trees

河畔出现这么一段比较新的木阶梯通向水边,立着牌子:我们感谢“乡间小道老板”Bill Archibald先生建成这些阶梯,让大家可以休闲享乐菲沙河。”

Bill Archibald Memorial Plaque and stairway leading to Fraser River
Bill Archibald Memorial Plaque and stairway

网上查了下Bill Archibald先生的资料才知道,老先生把一生精力全部奉献给枫树岭市和匹特草原市(Pitt Meadow)这一带的马术协会,跨越几十年间经过他的倡议、争取和身体力行的劳作,无数的骑马林间道得以建成和维护,让枫树岭这一带成为加拿大的“马道之都”。许多马道可以追溯到19世纪末开始的伐木鼎盛时期,那时即使已经开始使用林木小火车,最方便的依然是用马车把砍下的木头拉下山送到水边木材加工场或者火车集运站。Bill老先生也是位记录历史的严谨人士,给枫树岭市博物馆捐赠了大量的文物和本地历史纪录。这些翻山越岭河畔湖边星罗密布的马道也是枫树岭匹特草原乃至BC省低陆平原重要的徒步道,为人们提供了无论贫富皆可享受的户外休闲资源。很遗憾的是老先生在今年二月仙逝他界。

加拿大人的社区服务精神,从这位平凡但传奇的老先生这里得以体现。在网上找到Bill Archibald先生的照片,来自Maple Ridge News当地报纸的文章,版权属于Black Press Media files:

The "Trail boss" Bill Archibald photo
The Trail Boss Bill Archibald photo

走下阶梯到河边,河滩上铺着钢丝网稳定河床也有助于行走。风景很好,狗狗散步的脚印:

Stairway to Fraser River on the trail
Stairway leading to Fraser River
Fraser River view to the left
Fraser River view to the left
Fraser River view to the right
Fraser River view to the right

从停车场出发沿着卡那卡溪的弯道走到菲沙河畔,然后向西进入菲沙河畔的林间道到尽头,也不过是550米左右。这段路很平,夹在菲沙河与卡那卡溪之间,即使轮椅人士也能通行。在路的右边很快就出现一座桥,应该就是在观鸟塔那边远远地看到的那一座:

Pedestrian bridge to the right of the trail
Pedestrian bridge to the right
snow-covered pedestrian bridge over Kanaka Creek
Pedestrian bridge over Kanaka Creek covered in snow

先不过桥,继续往前走几米,这条小路就到了尽头。架在水面上的栈道围成八角形,让游人360°都能看到风景:

Octagon shaped deck at the end of the riverfront trail over the water
Octagon shaped deck at the end of the trail

栏杆上钉着解说牌,告诉卡那卡溪与菲沙河交汇处一带的历史:附近一度有原住民村落(考古发现四千年前杉树皮编织的篮子),菲沙河谷不同的原住民部落秋天到这儿附近捕捉鲑鱼;欧洲人在这里建立木材集散地,从上游和火车运过来的木头分拣之后组成木排拖往附近的木材加工厂,丘吉尔曾到来这里参观过,等等:

两条河的河面上都遗留着许许多多的木头桩子,当时可能用于规整和维系木筏作业。河岸上曾铺有铁轨拉木材到这里,现在只剩下一些护岸的桩子:

The confluence of Kanaka Creek and Fraser River with the end of boardwalk
The lookout deck at the end of Riverfront Trail

遥想当年,这座桥还不存在的时候,窄窄的水道被木排占满,工人们忙着从火车上把大量木头倒进水里发出巨大轰鸣声,然后另一些工人在水中的大木头上完全靠着自己的平衡能力站稳还要用钩子把木头拢到一块扎成木筏,也是非常危险的作业:

Closer look at pedestrian bridge at the river mouth of Kanaka Creek
Pedestrian bridge at the rivermount

残存的地基在水中慢慢腐烂湮灭,如果它们能说话,会有怎样的故事可言?

Remnants of the old railway tracks above the river, , part of the mill
Remnants of the old railway tracks

走回刚才的小桥,听见清脆的啼鸣,有些萌萌的,抬头望去是两只白头鹰站在树顶聊天,不远处可见它们的窝:

Bald eagles on top of a tree with a helicopter flying over
bald eagles on top of a tree
bald eagle nest
bald eagle nest by the Kanaka Creek

过桥之后不远处小径分叉,靠里面一条穿过沼泽,应该是探秘自然的好去处,距离也不长,连同河畔这条加在一起1.1公里而已,那么走一圈吧:

Nature trail signage
Nature trail signage

先走河边这一条,灌木和杂树在冬天的阳光下闪耀着金红色光泽,桦树和桤木并存吗,其实分不清树种:

Red bark brushes and forest along the trail
forest along the trail
alder and other trees glow in the sunset along the trail
forest glow in the sunset

这条小径上还有旱厕,河边辟出空地备有野餐桌椅,果然想得周到:

picnic area by the river
picnic area by the river on the trail
Toilet along the trail by the picnic area
Toilet on the nature trail at Kanaka Creek Riverfront

再往前一些还有一个野餐区。下过雪,桌椅上堆积着半化的雪,但不妨碍不怕冷的加拿大人在这儿坐着野餐和聊天,悄悄看了眼桌上都有啥,红酒、果汁、三明治、零食等等,似乎没有保温杯。其实加拿大人也够得上战斗民族了:

Another picnic area
Another picnic area along the trail
People braving the coldness enjoyed picnic
People enjoy picnic in winter on the trail

再往前似乎小径就到底了,一转头注意到地上被雪压倒着的小树,这儿才是生态小径的入口处,被堵住了:

Fallen tree on the trail
Fallen tree on the trail

跨过去,没走多远,更大的一棵树完全堵住了去处。这下只能从缝隙里钻过去了,这次大雪压倒了不少的树呢:

People tried to get pass the fallen tree by ducking down
Fallen trees on the trail at Kanaka Creek

越过障碍继续往前,生态小径果然名副其实。小径虽然平坦却比较窄,路旁密密的参天大树如同巨人一般,走在其中顿觉人很渺小:

Giant maple trees at Nature Trail
Giant maple trees along Nature Trail
Giant trees at Nature Trail area
Giant trees at Nature Trail area

抬头望去,也许会觉得巨人们在悄声聊天,用我们听不懂的风之语:

Big trees like giants congregating
Big trees like giants congregating

也许这就是传说中的空中花篮,大树提供营养,蕨类藤萝生长旺盛,即使在冬天:

Vegetations growing on tree trunks like hanging basket
tree trunks like hanging basket
Moss covered tree branches
Moss covered tree branches

大树结的果子还有各种莓果给小鸟们提供了食物,这应该是桤木(赤杨)的果子:

Alder cones
Alder cones

一路听到小鸟啾啾却不知道它们在哪儿,走在生态小径上倒是看到了,几乎和周围融为一体:

Song sparrow on Nature trail
Song Sparrow on Nature trail

一旁的沼泽地冻结了一半,斜阳下反射着微微的金属光泽,这就是我想象中冬天的代表色彩:

reflection of the frozen bog on Nature Trail
Frozen Bog on Nature Trail

堆雪的灌木总是很美的,与之相映衬的是绿得耀眼的藤萝,沼泽地虽然夏天蚊虫滋生,却是自然生态的一部分,并不意味着水脏。这一带空气湿润纯净,从空气中吸取水分养分的藤萝才能生长得如此之好:

Old Man's Beard lichens hanging around the bushes
Old Man’s Beard on brushes
Snow-covered vegetations
Snow-covered vegetations

最佩服这棵已经失去大部分树干几乎只剩下树皮的残桩,竟然又努力地长出了许许多多的小枝,生命力之顽强令人肃然起敬:

New branches grow out of remnants of a peeled tree
new branches growing out of remnants of a tree trunk

慢慢地绕了一圈走回小桥,跨过去再有三百米左右就离开了林中小径:

Return to pedestrian bridge
Pedestrian Bridge walkway
Looking back at Kanaka Creek from the bridge
Overlooking the creek

再次回到河边堤坝,这次往左走,堤坝上没有什么遮挡,河边可见大量的木桩子,拴木排或者船只用的:

Riverfront Dyke Trail Kanaka Creek
Riverfront Dyke Trail Kanaka Creek Park

菲沙河对岸是兰里堡(Fort Langley),19世纪末来自夏威夷的原住民(自称Kanaka人)被哈德逊海湾公司雇佣作为向导来到兰里堡工作,最终定居下来务农,卡那卡溪(Kanaka Creek)得名于此。

View of Fort Langley and Derby Reach across Fraser River
The view of Fort Langley across Fraser River

这条徒步道兼做马道和自行车道,其实一侧完全是工业用地,仍然有运作中的木材加工厂,而另一侧则是菲沙河。越过工厂远眺群山,风景也不错:

snow-covered mountains in the distance
Mountain peaks covered in snow
Mountain view in the distance across the industrial land
Mountain view across the industrial land

走这一段大约800米长的徒步道,主要就是看看河水流淌河上船只往来,不像林中小道那么富有变化:

The dyke trail with river view
The Dyke Trail along the Fraser River
The Dyke Trail covered in snow
The Dyke Trail covered in snow with winter vegetations
McMillan Island across Fraser River
McMillan Island across Fraser River

当然,许多人免不了要猜测对面兰里堡的豪宅区。河畔不乏超级豪宅,比如说这一座占地六英亩的豪宅,备有自己的水上飞机与船只码头,在建时就已经以奢华出名。这家的邻居也是占地几千平方米的豪宅。私人豪宅并不对外开放,但据说有人以为这是精品酒店而误入:

Luxury housings on Fort Langley side across Fraser River
Luxury housings across Fraser River

河堤上的徒步小径的东边尽头被拦住了,墙的另一头应该是私人产业,从停在码头上的游艇和船只来看,应该就是专业售卖船只的私人公司:

East end of Riverfront tail Kanaka Creek
East end of Riverfront trail Kanaka Creek Park

从这里折返到停车场,大约1.2公里左右。如果天气好,这里是散散步吹吹江风放空自己的好去处。整个河畔公园走一圈大约需要一个半小时到两小时。

至此,卡那卡溪(Kanaka Creek)地区公园的河畔公园也介绍完毕。